© 2019 by Christina M Schmidt

Physiological Costs of Reproduction

It is undisputed that reproduction is a costly endeavor which may reduce an animal’s survival or future reproductive success. However, the physiology underlying these costs is less understood. 

My research investigates such costs as bone loss, oxidative stress, reduced immune response, and aging, and how these costs affect resource allocation, reproductive strategies, phenotypic plasticity, and the evolution of life history traits. I also address how these costs are influenced by nutrient availability and utilization, sociality and competition, and other physiological functions.


Research projects include:

Trade-offs in growth, immune response and reproductive output in brown anoles (Anolis sagrei) *undergraduate research at Wells College

Oxidative stress associated with reproduction in Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis)

Calcium availability, maternal bone loss and offspring mineral allocation in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus)

Bone metabolic efficiency and reproductive history in sows (Sus scrofa)

Calcium intake and utilization during reproduction in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

Brown anole